Abstract The increasing prevalence of divorce in this country has become a major concern for social scientists. This study attempted to determine what ramifications this trend might have regarding trust for adult children of divorce. A modified version of the Dyadic Trust Scale, originally designed by Larzelere and Hustonasked questions regarding attitudes concerning the probability participants will experience successful relationships or marriage. Other specific questions were included in this study to evaluate the levels of trust between adults whose parents had divorced during childhood and adults from intact families.
Rochester Institute of Technology Bowlby's, Ainsworth's, and Shaver's research created the understanding that infant styles create a disposition for later behavioral traits.
More current research has questioned the significance of how the disruption of the attachment structure such as in divorce can affect children's behaviors throughout life. The research on this topic is contradictory and somewhat inconclusive, with research asserting that either attachment style or external environment has been the main contributor to the behaviors seen in members of divorced families, while many sources stated that it is likely to be a combination of both influences.
With either explanation, research concludes that children of divorced families have a disposition to these behaviors, but the end development of behavior and personality is in the hands of the individual and the external factors that are present.
This paper discusses the attachment theory that was developed by Harlow, Bowlby and Ainsworth, which states that attachment is a key aspect to determining personality and behavior throughout an individual's lifetime. Attachment can be defined as the strong bond that develops first between parent and child, and later in peer and romantic relationships Bowlby, Research on divorce and separation of attachment figures has yielded conflicting results.
It is often reported that children of divorce have trouble adapting to different stages of their lives because of their experience with broken or detached attachment bonds. These children are said to have no accurate template for successful relationships to replicate in their lives.
Taking this into account, these researchers looked to peer relations, socioeconomic status, general distress, or poor parenting skills to explain the appearance of troublesome behavior or poor grades.
The study of all aspects of divorce and attachment is important to how parents, psychologists and teachers approach and understand children of divorced families in order to help them reach their full potential as adults.
Overview of Attachment Theory The attachment theory has a basis in three theoretical approaches and was first related to primate and infant-mother studies. The three approaches include a psychoanalytic approach, the social learning approach and the ethological theory of attachment Ainsworth, Childhood attachment styles, which will be discussed later, are clearly based on the emotional bond between the parent and child, opposed to a biological push to become attached.
Harlow found that infant monkeys became attached to surrogate mothers when away from their real mothers. The young monkeys preferred heated, cloth covered mothers to wire mothers at any stage of their development. These infant monkeys fared better in many aspects of their lives compared to others, who were provided with only a wire mother.
Young primates were more likely to be better adjusted physically, psychologically and socially compared to the monkeys raised by the wire mother. Harlow concluded from his research that the primates are better off in their lives when given more creature comforts, attention and grooming when compared to those who were deprived of these elements Harlow, Harlow also states that the infant monkeys form a close bond, or attachment to their surrogate cloth mothers.
These surrogate mothers are often used as a secure base when opportunities to venture and explore were presented. This was done in order to see how the infants adapted to the surroundings.
These infants used their emotional bond to ensure that they would not be harmed when encountering new objects. Also, when a threatening stimulus was presented in this lab experiment, the monkeys retreated to the cloth mothers for safety.
This correlates with Ainsworth's finding that infants in Uganda use their mothers as a secure base to explore, occasionally leaving her sights, but periodically returning to ensure themselves that she is still there.
Bowlby also conducted research on attachment, recognizing the undeniable bond between infants and their primary care givers.
In a variety of cultures that have been studied, the majority of children ranging in age from nine months to one year old have exhibited strong attachment behavior towards their primary care giver.
This trend continues until three to four years of age, where the attachment weakens slightly. Hopefully at this point, the child will be secure enough to briefly venture from the mother and begin to develop other interactions and attachments Bowlby, The notion that attachment extends throughout the life of an individual is noted in sections of Ainsworth and Bowlby's literature.
Bowlby states that over time, the attachment that infants have for their parents is subtly weakened. The degree to which it is weakened depends on the temperament of the child, which in turn determines how readily new attachment bonds are sought out and formed Bowlby, Bowlby also researched the effect that temporary loss of the mother had on human infants, and his findings were expanded upon by the development of the Strange Situation Procedure.
These styles are based on Ainsworth's studies of temporary loss of the main attachment figure within a controlled lab setting. This research was called the Strange Situation Procedure.As a first step in that process, MDRC went back to the state of Minnesota to obtain divorce and marriage records for the full sample of 2, two-parent MFIP families (including both recipients and applicants) for a follow-up period of more than six years.
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON THE. BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN. by DAVID HAWKINS. and KAREN LLOYD. A. practicum submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of.
MASTER OF. SOCIAL WORK Portland State University. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Divorce From A Child’s Perspective Posted Nov 15, in Co-Parent Coaching, Parenting Plan The differences in how children react to divorce/separation are due in part to their capacity for cognitive and moral understanding, their developmental stage, and the makeup of their social lives.
Lea esta página en español PROTECTING A CHILD’S EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT WHEN PARENTS SEPARATE OR DIVORCE. by Peter Ernest Haiman, Ph.D. The child’s development of an emotional attachment to a primary caregiver in the first six years of life is very important.
Divorce and parental loss can result in relationship troubles. The negative influences the children gain from the divorce and the conflicts they see their parents engage in can affect how the child treats his or her friends.
A negative behavior learned from the fighting of a child's parents can lead to the child fighting with other people such. The article below gives excellent insight into divorce from a child's perspective. The Effects of Divorce on Children: Dr. Deb Huntley, professor of psychology at Argosy University/Twin Cities says, "No matter what age a child is, he or she will have more difficulty adjusting to divorce if there is continued conflict between parents.