Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius born c.
But then where have all the concordances gone today? Before the rise of a certain ubiquitous search engine, the humble index verborum an alphabetical list of dictionary headwords used in a text, with a full list of citations for each instance or concordance same, but with a few words of context for each instance were respected genres of scholarship.
The work was tedious, though hardly easy or rote, given the many homographs and homonymsespecially in Latin. Concordances, dull though they may seem, helped classical scholars in studying the characteristic vocabulary of the authors.
They allowed the finding of passages quickly. They helped translators and commentators by allowing access to a full list of instances of a particular lemma, something dictionaries did not provide.
They revealed which words did not appear in an author. And, a key factor for many classical concordance makers, they could help in efforts to establish a more authoritative text. InHenri Quellet produced a comprehensive bibliography of them, which runs to pages, and a list made at Dartmouth gives dozens more examples, up to the early s.
Now the print concordance is well and truly defunct, digital road-kill. The TLG offers behind a paywall a similar, somewhat more sophisticated service for a vast corpus of ancient Greek.
A delightful thing—but vaguely tragic when you consider the untold years of collective labor on the part of scholars including many graduate students that yielded scores of classical concordances and even, in some cases, several competing ones for the same author.
Computers can lemmatize unambiguous words easily, but not the ambiguous ones, which still require human inspection. A fully lemmatized text, on the other hand, with each form tied to a dictionary headword, has many potential uses. This analyzed million word forms led ultimately to major advances in computational linguistics.
The Belgian research group LASLA began in the early s to hand lemmatize and POS tag Latin and Greek texts for its extensive databaseand scholars have used it for stylistic analysis of classical authors.
The very act of lemmatizing can be good pedagogy. Thanks to the Perseids project, many teams of teachers and students are now treebankingan activity in which readers parse each word in a sentence and represent the syntactical relationships between the words graphically.
This activity has now produced millions of words of crowdsourced lemmatized Latin and Greek. But in some ways this digital work is reproducing work that had already been done in earlier generations by the concordance makers but published in a different format. Whereas the treebanker diagrams a sentence and displays it, the concordance maker dismembers the sentence and files the words in little boxes.
What if the texts that were atomized in print concordances could reassembled, and the words put back together, each still tied to its correctly analyzed dictionary form?
Bret Mulligan and I are pleased to have been awarded small grant from the Society for Classical Studies the Pedagogy Award to take a first, experimental, step in this direction. The Index Apuleianus by Oldfather et.
With the permission of the SCS as copyright holder, we will have the book professionally digitized and, using a program developed by Dickinson College computer scientist Michael Skalak, convert it into a fully lemmatized text.
Further processing will tie the data to the set of Latin lemmas used in the Morpheus code, which is used by Perseus and other datasets of parsed Latin. It will then be married with lexicon via The Bridgean application for the creation of correct vocabulary lists for Greek and Latin authors.
This will allow students and teachers to create accurate running vocabulary lists for all works Apuleius, and increase the readability of his texts. How should it be displayed to the user? How much information should be captured from the original print work? Some of the choices to be made in digitization are mentioned in the sample below.
The scholarly effort that went into the creation of the Index Apuleianus can be liberated for re-use in at least three ways: Vocabulary lists for easier reading as in Dickinson College Commentaries editions Data for word frequency and stylistic analyses The development and better training of automatic parsers based on a larger corpus of hand parsed Latin Indirectly and eventually, this project will, we hope, make machine parsers better so students of all Latin authors, not just Apuleius, can read them more easily.
We plan to release the data on Github i.After the OED my friend handed me the Tenth Edition Columbia Granger’s Index to Poetry.
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The Forméd Trace: The Later Poetry of Ezra Pound (Columbia University Press, ). ISBN ; Cookson, William.
A Guide to the Cantos of Ezra Pound (Anvil, ). ISBN ; Edwards, John Hamilton and William W.
Vasse. Annotated Index to the Cantos of Ezra Pound (University of California Press, ). LC Catalogue No.: 8: A complete word and phrase concordance to the poems and songs of Robert Burns, incorporating a gloss: A complete word and phrase concordance to the poems and songs of Robert Burns, incorporating a glossary of Scotch words, with notes, index, and appendix of readings.
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Open Source Shakespeare attempts to be the best free Web site containing Shakespeare's complete works. It is intended for scholars, thespians, and Shakespeare lovers of every kind. OSS includes the Globe Edition of the complete works, which was the definitive single-volume Shakespeare edition for over a half-century.