References and Further Reading 1. The continuity and coherence of Jewish national life, their life as a people, was largely grounded in the fact that Jewish law bound them together despite diaspora and lack of political self-rule.
Talmud was studied intensively, its contents being elaborated and developed to meet the varied conditions of economic, social, and political life. Talmud constitutes the most central collection of interpretation, explication, and commentary on the commandments in Torah, traditionally held to be six hundred and thirteen in number.
Knowledge of Talmud, study of it, commentary upon it, and following its guidance bound Jews together as a people in covenant with God. In addition to being an expert on scripture and Talmud, Maimonides was an important judge and legal official in the Jewish community in Egypt.
He was a physician in the Muslim court in Egypt and had extensive correspondence with Jews far and wide, writing detailed responses to questions of Jewish law and scriptural interpretation. The prospects of medieval Jewish communities often depended upon the disposition of the Christian or Islamic rulers of the areas in which Jews lived.
As is the case for several other important medieval Jewish philosophers, the larger intellectual culture in which Maimonides lived and worked was Islamic rather than Christian.
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon was born in Cordoba, Spain, and within a few years his family felt the need to flee persecution. They led a wandering life for several years and then settled in North Africa. They had fled the Iberian Peninsula after an especially intolerant Islamic dynasty came to power.
Maimonides visited the Holy Land briefly and was distressed at the condition of Jews living there. Maimonides and others in his family depended to a large extent on his younger brother, a successful merchant. His brother was lost at sea during a journey across the Indian Ocean, and Maimonides wrote that the loss of his brother pained him profoundly, leading him into depression.
In the latter part of his life he was physician to a Grand Vizier who was ruling Egypt for the Sultan Saladin. Though he wrote enormously important works on Jewish law he did not believe that one should be paid for being a teacher of Torah and Talmud.
He also wrote works on medicine and diseases, on various sciences, and other subjects. He conducted extensive correspondence with Jewish communities far and wide on diverse matters, from details of religious observance to how to respond when confronted with a choice between death and conversion.
See, for example, his Epistle to Yemen in Halkin and Hartman. His codification of Jewish law, Mishneh Torah, remains a much studied and important work in the lives of Orthodox Jewish communities to this day.
He led an almost breathlessly busy life as physician, judge, codifier of Jewish law, philosopher, scientist, and teacher. The rigors of his responsibilities are described in a letter to Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon, the man who translated Guide of the Perplexed from its original Arabic into Hebrew.
Maimonides became quite widely known and respected by Jews and Muslims alike. He died in and his death was felt as a considerable loss.
Maimonides remains an important philosopher and key figure in Jewish religious tradition, offering extensive guidance on matters of Jewish law and Jewish life. Though there is a longstanding debate within Judaism over whether the central role ascribed to reason by Maimonides is in tension with Judaism as a revelation-based religious tradition it is difficult to imagine Judaism without his influence.
Also, as noted above, he was an important influence on non-Jewish philosophers, such as Aquinas, Leibniz, and also on Spinozawho had his own controversial place in Jewish thought.
Maimonides had encyclopedic knowledge of Jewish law and one of his main projects was to try to organize the massive, complex body of interpretation, argument, and elaboration in a systematic, orderly manner.
By doing this, he intended to obviate the need for further codification and interpretation. He sought to provide a normatively authoritative presentation of Jewish law. His aim was to articulate what he took to be the correct interpretation of the law without also including the argumentation that yielded his interpretation.
The aim was to make the law accessible, to make it easier to find and follow what the law required. The work that resulted, the Mishneh Torah, was a formidable achievement.
While it did not bring interpretation and codification of Jewish law to closure, it has remained throughout the centuries a vitally important guide to Jewish law for large numbers of Orthodox Jews.
In that respect, it has more than just historical importance. The student, a young man named Joseph, had written to ask how to reconcile his commitment to Judaism and Jewish tradition on the one hand with his commitment to reason and demonstrative science on the other.
Joseph was himself a very capable and learned individual, and the Guide is the subtle, complex, layered series of letters written by Maimonides in reply.
In the Christian world there were cathedral schools and, by the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, a number of universities. In contrast, Jews were scattered and the Temple in Jerusalem, formerly the locus of priestly ritual, had been destroyed centuries earlier.
Following that destruction and the huge wave of killing by the Romans, Judaism survived in large measure through the development of the rabbinic tradition, to which Talmud was crucial.Ethical Writings of Maimonides [Maimonides] on vetconnexx.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Philosopher, physician, and master of rabbinical literature, Moses ben Maimon () strove to reconcile biblical revelation with medieval Aristotelianism. His /5(7). His codification of Jewish law, Mishneh Torah, remains a much studied and important work in the lives of Orthodox Jewish communities to this day.
He led an almost breathlessly busy life as physician, judge, codifier of Jewish law, philosopher, scientist, and teacher.
|The circumstances which led to the transference of the head-quarters of Jewish learning from the East to the West in the tenth century are thus narrated in the Sefer ha-kabbalah of Rabbi Abraham ben David:|
|Project MUSE - Maimonides and the Book That Changed Judaism||Biography[ edit ] Early life — [ edit ] Thomas was most probably born in the castle of RoccaseccaAquinoin the Kingdom of Sicily present-day LazioItalyc. Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means.|
|Life and Works a. Thomas Aquinas was born sometime between and in Roccasecca, Italy, near Naples.|
|He is considered the most important Jewish philosopher, and famously combined Aristotelian philosophy with an understanding of Jewish Scripture. He believed that God is unknowable, and in The Guide for the Perplexed he will criticize those who believe in anthropomorphic human-like conceptions of the divine.|
|Sorry! Something went wrong!||Summary This book shows that Maimonides and St. Thomas reached strikingly similar conclusions regarding the limits of reason and that these limits, in turn, show the dimensions of philosophical understanding.|
Isadore Twersky, Introduction to the Code of Maimonides, New . THE LIFE OF MOSES MAIMONIDES two statements it may be inferred that in times of persecution Maimonides and his family did not seek to protect their lives and property by dissimulation.
They submitted to the troubles of exile in order that they might remain faithful to their religion. His originality is conspicuous in the Introduction. Maimonides fused neo-Aristotelian philosophy with the Jewish legal tradition into a systemic whole. His main philosophic work, "The Guide for the Perplexed," is an apologetic appeal to rationalists troubled by the corporeality of God in .
1 The Order of Nature and Moral Luck: Maimonides on Divine Providence Steven Nadler University of Wisconsin-Madison Rationalist Jewish thinkers, just because of their rationalism, faced a particular.
Explaining Mosaic Laws and the Limits of Scholarship Jonathan Elukin See Isidore Twersky, Introduction to the Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah) (New Haven, Conn., ), 11 See the discussion by Benin, Footprints, 58, and Amos Funkenstein, Perceptions of Jew-.