Concern for environment has increased and spread over recent years. Pollution-a major environmental concern. Types and sources and effects of pollution. Causes and associated problems.
So the total of the Mains exam will be Marks Only. Those who want to apply for UPSC will be required to know all topics related to the essay. Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country. History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.
Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Distribution of key natural resources across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent ; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world including India Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.
Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
Separation of powers between various organs disputes redressal mechanisms and institutions. Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Issues relating to poverty and hunger. Role of civil services in a democracy.
India and its neighborhood- relations. Important International institutions, agencies, and for- their structure, mandate. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development, and employment.
Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. Land reforms in India. Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.
Linkages between development and spread of extremism. Role of external state and nonstate actors in creating challenges to internal security. Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.
Essence, determinants, and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.
Human Values — lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; the role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
Aptitude and foundational values of Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance. Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.At present, % of the Indian population lives below the poverty line.
In the category of poor falls the people whose daily income is less than 33 rupees a day in cities and 27 rupees a day in. Over the past 20 years or so India, China, and the rest of East Asia, experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements.
Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing and shelter.
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Hindi Short Story “Jese ko Tesa”, “जैसे को तैसा” Hindi Laghu Katha for Class 9, Class 10 and Class Hindi Short Story “Lalchi Kutta”, “लालची कुत्ता” Hindi Laghu Katha for . Indian population in poverty. As you can see in the table here, official figures are around 35%, even while you should keep in mind that there is a wealth of research pointing at a massive underestimation due to the current poverty line.